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Are you trying to learn about search engine optimisation? Want to understand the terminology used in the industry?

Brafton shares the terms you need to know in this infographic.

Here are a few that make their list:

  • SERPs
  • Anchor text
  • Click-through rate
  • Backlink
  • Ranking factors

Check out the infographic for more.

What is Search Engine Optimisation? The Key SEO Terms Defined [Infographic]


In the ever-evolving landscape of digital marketing, Search Engine Optimization (SEO) remains a fundamental and essential component. It is the practice of optimizing your website to rank higher in search engine results pages (SERPs), ultimately driving organic, non-paid traffic to your site.

SEO is a complex field with a multitude of techniques and strategies, many of which involve specialized terminology. In this comprehensive guide, we will break down the key SEO terms and concepts you need to know to navigate the world of SEO effectively.

301 Redirect

A 301 redirect is a permanent redirection from one URL to another. It is often used when a page is moved or its URL is changed.

Properly implementing 301 redirects helps maintain SEO equity and user experience by directing traffic to the new location.

Above the Fold

The term above the fold originates from the print newspaper era and now refers to the portion of a web page that is visible without scrolling.

Content placed above the fold is considered more prominent and may have a greater impact on user engagement and SEO.


Search engines like Google use complex algorithms to determine the order in which websites appear in search results. Algorithms take into account various factors, including keywords, content quality, backlinks, and user experience.

Understanding how search engine algorithms work can help you tailor your SEO efforts effectively.

Algorithm Updates

Search engines regularly update their algorithms to improve the quality of search results. Staying informed about these updates is essential for adapting your SEO strategies accordingly.

Google, for example, often releases major updates like Panda, Penguin, and BERT, which can have a significant impact on rankings.

Alt Text

Alt text, short for alternative text, is a descriptive text attribute added to images on a webpage.

It serves two primary purposes: helping visually impaired users understand the content of images and providing context to search engines, which can improve image search rankings.

Analytics and Metrics

To measure the effectiveness of your SEO efforts, you need to track various metrics, including:

  • Traffic: Monitor the number of visitors to your site, as well as their sources and behaviour.
  • Rankings: Track your SERP rankings for target keywords.
  • Click-Through Rate (CTR): Measure the percentage of users who click on your search result.
  • Conversion Rate: Calculate the percentage of visitors who complete a desired action, such as making a purchase or filling out a contact form.
  • Bounce Rate: Bounce rate indicates the percentage of users who leave your site after viewing only one page.
  • Keyword Performance: Analyse how well your targeted keywords are performing in terms of traffic and conversions.

Anchor Text

Anchor text is the visible, clickable text in a hyperlink. It provides context and helps search engines understand the content of the linked page.

Optimizing anchor text with relevant keywords can improve your SEO efforts.

Anchor Text Variation

Anchor text variation involves using a mix of different anchor texts when linking to your website or between internal pages.

This practice looks more natural to search engines and reduces the risk of over-optimization.


A blacklist is a list of websites or domains that have been penalized by search engines for violating their guidelines.

Being on a blacklist can severely harm your website’s search engine rankings and reputation.

Bounce Rate

Bounce rate is the percentage of visitors who navigate away from your website after viewing only one page.

A high bounce rate may indicate that users are not finding what they’re looking for or that the page doesn’t meet their expectations.


Breadcrumbs are navigational aids displayed on a webpage, typically near the top, that show users the path they took to reach the current page.

They improve user experience and help search engines understand the site’s structure.

Canonical URL

Canonical URLs are used to indicate the preferred version of a web page when multiple versions with similar content exist.

This helps search engines avoid indexing duplicate content and consolidates ranking signals.


Clickbait refers to the practice of using sensational or misleading headlines and content to entice users to click on a link.

While it may initially drive traffic, clickbait can harm your website’s credibility and result in high bounce rates if the content doesn’t match the expectations set by the headline.

Click Depth

Click depth refers to the number of clicks it takes for a user to reach a particular page on a website, starting from the homepage.

A shallow click depth indicates that important pages are easily accessible and more likely to be crawled and indexed.

Click-Through Rate (CTR) Optimization

CTR optimization involves improving the percentage of users who click on your search result when it appears in SERPs.

Crafting compelling titles and meta descriptions, using schema markup, and providing valuable content can all contribute to higher CTR.

Content Gap Analysis

Content gap analysis involves identifying topics or keywords that your competitors are ranking for but your website is not.

This analysis helps you discover content opportunities to enhance your SEO strategy.

Core Web Vitals

Core Web Vitals are a set of user-focused performance metrics introduced by Google to measure a website’s loading performance, interactivity, and visual stability.

Google considers these metrics when ranking websites, emphasizing the importance of a fast and user-friendly experience.

Conversion Funnel

A conversion funnel is a series of steps or stages that users go through to complete a desired action on your website, such as making a purchase or signing up for a newsletter.

Understanding and optimizing the funnel can improve conversion rates.

Crawl Budget

Crawl budget refers to the number of web pages or resources that search engine bots allocate for crawling on your website during a given period.

Optimizing your site’s structure and eliminating unnecessary pages can help ensure that search engines crawl and index your most important content efficiently.

Crawling and Indexing

Crawling is the process by which search engine bots systematically scan and analyse web pages on the internet. Indexing follows crawling, where search engines store and organize information about web pages in their databases.

Both processes are essential for search engines to deliver relevant results to users.

Doorway Pages

Doorway pages, also known as gateway pages or bridge pages, are low-quality web pages created solely for the purpose of ranking in search results and redirecting users to other pages.

They are considered a violation of search engine guidelines.

Dofollow Link

A dofollow link is a hyperlink that allows search engines to follow it and pass link equity from one page to another.

Dofollow links are valuable for SEO, as they contribute to a website’s authority and ranking.

Dwell Time

Dwell time is the amount of time a user spends on a web page after clicking on a search result but before returning to the search results.

It is considered an important user engagement metric, as longer dwell times may indicate that users find the content valuable and engaging.

Duplicate Content

Duplicate content refers to identical or very similar content that appears on multiple pages, either within your own website or across different websites.

Search engines aim to show unique and valuable content in search results, so addressing duplicate content issues is crucial to avoid SEO penalties.


E-A-T, which stands for Expertise, Authoritativeness, and Trustworthiness, is a concept introduced by Google’s quality guidelines.

It emphasizes the importance of content that demonstrates expertise, authority, and trustworthiness to rank well in search results, particularly for YMYL (Your Money or Your Life) topics.

Inbound vs. Outbound Links

Inbound links (also known as backlinks) are links from other websites to yours, while outbound links are links from your website to other websites. Both types of links play a role in SEO.

Inbound links can boost your site’s authority, while outbound links can provide additional context and resources for your visitors.

Inbound Marketing

Inbound marketing is an approach that involves attracting potential customers through content marketing, SEO, social media, and other non-intrusive methods.

Effective inbound marketing can lead to increased organic traffic and conversions.

Inbound Link

An inbound link, also known as an incoming or backlink, is a hyperlink from another website to your site.

High-quality inbound links from authoritative sources can boost your site’s authority and search engine rankings.

Internal Linking

Internal linking is the practice of linking one page of your website to another page within the same domain.

It helps users navigate your site, distributes link equity, and can improve the visibility of important pages in search results.

Information Architecture

Information architecture is the way a website’s content is organized and structured to enhance user navigation and understanding.

A well-structured information architecture can positively impact SEO by improving user experience and content accessibility.


Keywords are the foundation of SEO. They are the words or phrases that people type into search engines when looking for information, products, or services. Identifying and targeting the right keywords for your website is crucial for SEO success.

Keywords can be categorized into two types:

  • Short-Tail Keywords: These are short, generic phrases with one or two words, such as “shoes” or “digital marketing.”
  • Long-Tail Keywords: Long-tail keywords are longer and more specific phrases, like “best running shoes for flat feet” or “digital marketing strategies for small businesses.” Long-tail keywords often have less competition and can yield more targeted traffic.

Keyword Difficulty

Keyword difficulty is a metric that assesses how competitive it is to rank for a specific keyword or phrase.

It takes into account factors like the number of competitors, backlinks, and content quality, helping you identify viable keywords for your SEO efforts.

Keyword Research

Keyword research is the process of identifying and analysing keywords and phrases relevant to your industry, products, or services.

It helps you understand user intent and guides your content creation and optimization efforts.

Keyword Research Tools

Keyword research tools are software applications or online platforms that assist in finding and analysing keywords relevant to your website or industry.

These tools help you identify valuable keywords for SEO and content creation.

Keyword Cannibalization

Keyword cannibalization occurs when multiple pages on your website target the same or very similar keywords.

This can confuse search engines and dilute your SEO efforts, potentially resulting in lower rankings for those keywords.

Keyword Density

Keyword density is the percentage of times a target keyword or phrase appears within a piece of content compared to the total number of words in that content.

While it’s essential to include keywords naturally, overusing them (keyword stuffing) can result in penalties from search engines.

Keyword Mapping

Keyword mapping is the process of assigning specific keywords or phrases to individual pages on your website.

This strategic approach ensures that each page targets relevant keywords, reducing keyword cannibalization and improving SEO effectiveness.

Link Equity

Link equity, also known as link juice, is the value or authority passed from one webpage to another through hyperlinks.

High-quality backlinks from authoritative websites can transfer link equity and boost the ranking and authority of the linked-to page.

Local Pack

A local pack is a set of business listings that appear in search results for location-based queries, typically accompanied by a map.

Optimizing your online presence for local packs is crucial for businesses targeting local customers.

Local SEO

Local SEO is essential for businesses that serve specific geographic areas. It focuses on optimizing your online presence to appear in local search results. Key elements of local SEO include:

  • Google My Business: Claim and optimize your Google My Business listing to appear in local map packs and searches.
  • Local Citations: Ensure your business information is consistent across online directories and platforms.
  • Customer Reviews: Encourage and manage customer reviews, as they can influence your local rankings.
  • Local Keywords: Use location-specific keywords to target local audiences effectively.

Local SEO Landing Pages

Local SEO landing pages are specific web pages created to target local search queries.

These pages typically contain information tailored to a specific location, such as address, phone number, business hours, and customer reviews.

LSI Keywords

LSI (Latent Semantic Indexing) keywords are related keywords or phrases that are semantically connected to your target keywords.

Including LSI keywords in your content can help search engines understand the context and relevance of your content, potentially improving your rankings.

Mobile-first Indexing

Mobile-first indexing is a search engine ranking strategy where search engines primarily use the mobile version of a website’s content for indexing and ranking.

Ensuring mobile-friendliness is essential in this era of mobile devices.

Mobile Optimization

Mobile optimization involves tailoring your website and its content to provide an excellent user experience on mobile devices, such as smartphones and tablets.

Mobile-friendliness is a significant factor in search engine rankings due to the prevalence of mobile browsing.

Negative SEO

Negative SEO involves malicious activities aimed at harming a competitor’s website’s search engine rankings.

This can include tactics like building spammy backlinks to the target site or duplicating its content in an attempt to trigger penalties.

Negative Keywords

Negative keywords are specific keywords or phrases that you exclude from your paid advertising campaigns to ensure your ads do not appear for irrelevant searches.

This optimization technique helps reduce ad spend and improve campaign relevance.

Niche Authority

Niche authority is the level of expertise and credibility a website has within a specific industry or niche.

Building niche authority involves consistently producing high-quality content and earning backlinks from relevant sources.

Niche Keywords

Niche keywords are specific, highly targeted keywords that cater to a particular audience or market segment.

Targeting niche keywords can help you reach a more focused audience and face less competition in search results.


A nofollow link is a hyperlink attribute used in HTML to instruct search engines not to pass any link equity or ranking value to the linked page.

Nofollow links are commonly used for user-generated content, sponsored content, or to prevent the flow of link juice to untrusted websites.

Off-Page SEO

Off-Page SEO focuses on optimizing factors outside of your website that can influence your search engine rankings. Key elements of off-page SEO include:

  • Backlinks: Backlinks are links from other websites to yours. They are a powerful ranking factor and can significantly impact your SEO efforts. High-quality, relevant backlinks are more valuable than a large quantity of low-quality ones.
  • Social Signals: Social media activity, such as likes, shares, and comments, can indirectly impact SEO by increasing brand visibility and driving traffic to your site.
  • Online Reputation Management: Monitoring and managing your online reputation is crucial. Positive reviews and mentions can boost your website’s credibility and authority.

On-Page SEO

On-Page SEO refers to optimizing individual web pages to improve their search engine ranking. Key components of on-page SEO include:

  • Title Tags: The title tag is an HTML element that defines the title of a web page. It should be concise, descriptive, and contain relevant keywords.
  • Meta Description: The meta description is a brief summary of the page’s content. It should be engaging, informative, and encourage users to click through to your website.
  • Header Tags (H1, H2, H3, etc.): Header tags are used to structure the content on a page. The H1 tag typically represents the main heading, while H2 and H3 tags are subheadings. Using header tags correctly improves both user experience and SEO.
  • Keyword Optimization: Incorporating keywords naturally within your content is essential. Avoid keyword stuffing, as it can lead to penalties from search engines.
  • Quality Content: High-quality, relevant content that addresses user intent is crucial. Search engines prioritize content that provides value to users.
  • URL Structure: Create clean, descriptive URLs that include relevant keywords. A clear URL structure makes it easier for both search engines and users to understand your content.


On-SERP (Search Engine Results Page) SEO focuses on optimizing your content to appear in featured snippets, knowledge panels, or other special SERP features. These features can provide your site with enhanced visibility and credibility.

To optimize for on-SERP SEO, consider:

  • Featured Snippets: Structure your content to answer common questions concisely. Google may select your content to appear as a featured snippet.
  • Knowledge Panels: For brands and individuals, ensuring that accurate and up-to-date information appears in knowledge panels can enhance your online presence.

Organic vs. Paid Search

Organic search results are those that appear naturally in search engine results, based on relevance and SEO efforts. Paid search results, on the other hand, are advertisements that appear at the top or bottom of SERPs.

While paid search can deliver immediate results, organic search traffic is often more sustainable and cost-effective in the long term.

Outranking Competitors

Outranking competitors is the process of achieving higher search engine rankings than competing websites in the same niche or industry.

This involves a combination of content quality, backlinks, and technical SEO.

Page Load Speed

Page load speed refers to the time it takes for a web page to fully load in a user’s browser.

Faster-loading pages tend to have better user experiences and may receive ranking advantages in search results.

Page Experience

Page experience is a user-centric set of metrics that evaluates how users perceive the experience of interacting with a web page.

Factors like page load speed, mobile-friendliness, and visual stability contribute to page experience, influencing search engine rankings.

Page Speed Optimization

Page speed optimization focuses on improving the loading speed and performance of web pages.

Fast-loading pages not only enhance user experience but also receive favourable treatment in search engine rankings.


PageRank, developed by Google co-founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin, is an algorithm that assesses the importance of web pages based on the quantity and quality of inbound links.

While not the primary ranking factor today, it remains a concept in SEO.

Rich Snippets

Rich snippets are search results that display additional information beyond the standard title and meta description.

They can include star ratings, pricing, event details, and more. Implementing structured data using schema markup can increase the chances of your content appearing as rich snippets in search results.

Robots Meta Tag

The robots meta tag is an HTML tag that instructs search engine bots on how to crawl and index a web page.

You can use it to specify whether a page should be indexed, followed, or excluded from search results.


Robots.txt is a text file placed in the root directory of a website that provides instructions to search engine bots on which pages or directories should not be crawled or indexed.

It’s a valuable tool for controlling what content is accessible to search engines.

SEO Tools

Numerous tools and software applications are available to aid in SEO efforts. Some popular SEO tools include:

  • Google Analytics: A free tool from Google that provides valuable insights into website traffic and user behaviour.
  • Google Search Console: Another free tool from Google that helps you monitor and improve your site’s presence in Google Search.
  • Keyword Research Tools: Tools like Ahrefs, SEMrush, and Moz offer comprehensive keyword research and analysis features.
  • Backlink Analysis Tools: These tools help you identify and evaluate backlinks to your site, such as Ahrefs and Majestic.

SERP Ranking

SERP ranking refers to where your website appears in the search engine results pages.

The goal of SEO is to improve your SERP ranking, ideally securing a spot on the first page of results, as users tend to click on results near the top.

SEO Audit

An SEO audit involves evaluating your website’s performance, identifying issues, and making necessary improvements. It covers various aspects of SEO, including on-page, off-page, technical, and content-related factors.

Conducting regular SEO audits helps maintain and enhance your website’s search visibility.

SEO Strategy

A well-defined SEO strategy outlines your goals, target audience, and the tactics you’ll use to improve your online presence.

It serves as a roadmap for your SEO efforts, helping you stay focused and organized.

SERP Features

SERP features are the special elements that appear in search engine results pages, apart from traditional organic listings.

Common SERP features include featured snippets, knowledge panels, image carousels, and local map packs.

Optimizing for these features can enhance your website’s visibility and click-through rates.

Schema Markup

Schema markup is a structured data vocabulary that you can add to your website’s HTML to provide search engines with more context about your content.

It enhances how your pages appear in search results, resulting in rich snippets, knowledge panels, and other rich search features.

SERP Volatility

SERP volatility refers to the degree of fluctuation or changes in search engine results pages over a period of time.

High SERP volatility can indicate algorithm updates or increased competition, which may impact your rankings.

SERP Click-Through Behavior

Understanding SERP click-through behaviour involves analysing how users interact with search engine results pages.

This includes studying click-through rates (CTR) and user preferences for organic results versus paid advertisements, which can influence your SEO strategy.

SERP Features

SERP features encompass all the elements and enhancements that appear on a search engine results page (SERP) beyond the traditional organic listings.

Examples of SERP features include featured snippets, local packs, image carousels, and knowledge panels. Optimizing for these features can enhance your visibility and click-through rates.


Siloing is a website architecture technique where content is organized into distinct categories or silos.

Each silo focuses on a specific topic or keyword, making it easier for search engines to understand the site’s content hierarchy.

SERP Personalization

SERP personalization refers to search engines customizing search results based on a user’s past search history, location, and preferences.

Personalized results can significantly impact SEO, making it essential to consider user context when optimizing content.

SERP Fluctuations

SERP fluctuations are regular changes in search engine rankings for specific keywords or phrases.

These fluctuations can be influenced by algorithm updates, competition, and other factors, making it important to monitor and adapt your SEO strategy accordingly.

Semantic Search

Semantic search is an advanced search technology that focuses on understanding the context and intent behind user queries rather than relying solely on matching keywords.

It helps search engines provide more accurate and relevant results.

SERP Bidding

SERP bidding is the practice of bidding on specific keywords or phrases to have your paid advertisements appear in the sponsored listings section of a search engine results page (SERP).

It is a component of search engine marketing (SEM).

SERP Analysis

SERP analysis involves studying search engine results pages (SERPs) to understand the competition for specific keywords.

Analysing the top-ranking pages helps identify opportunities and areas for improvement in your SEO strategy.

Schema Markup

Schema markup, also known as structured data, is a code added to web pages to provide search engines with additional context about the content.

It can lead to rich snippets and enhanced search results, improving click-through rates.

SEO Copywriting

SEO copywriting is the practice of creating website content that is not only engaging and valuable to readers but also optimized for search engines.

It involves strategically incorporating keywords and maintaining readability.

Search Console

Search Console, formerly known as Google Webmaster Tools, is a free tool provided by Google that allows website owners to monitor and optimize their site’s presence in Google Search.

It provides valuable insights and diagnostic information.


SERP click-through rate (CTR) measures the percentage of users who click on a search result when it appears in a search engine results page (SERP).

High CTR can indicate that your listing is relevant and compelling to users.

SEO Audit

An SEO audit is a comprehensive evaluation of a website’s SEO performance.

It includes analysing on-page, off-page, technical, and content-related factors to identify areas for improvement and optimization.

SEO Title

An SEO title, also known as a meta title or title tag, is an HTML element that defines the title of a web page.

It is a crucial on-page SEO factor and should be concise, descriptive, and contain relevant keywords.

SEO-friendly URL

An SEO-friendly URL is a web address that is structured in a way that is easy for both search engines and users to understand.

It typically includes descriptive keywords and avoids unnecessary parameters.

Schema Markup

Schema markup, or structured data, is code added to web pages to provide search engines with additional context about the content.

It can result in enhanced search results with rich snippets, such as star ratings and event details.

Technical SEO

Technical SEO focuses on the technical aspects of your website that can affect its visibility in search engines. Key technical SEO terms include:

  • Crawling: Search engine bots “crawl” your website to index its pages. Ensuring that your site is easily crawlable is essential for SEO.
  • Indexing: After crawling, search engines index your pages, meaning they add them to their database. You can control which pages are indexed through a robots.txt file.
  • XML Sitemap: An XML sitemap is a file that helps search engines understand the structure of your website. It lists all the important pages and their hierarchy.
  • Site Speed: A fast-loading website is not only user-friendly but also favoured by search engines. Page speed optimization is a critical aspect of technical SEO.
  • Mobile Friendliness: With the increasing use of mobile devices, having a mobile-friendly website is essential. Google uses mobile-first indexing, meaning it primarily considers your site’s mobile version for ranking.

User-Generated Content (UGC)

User-generated content (UGC) refers to content created and contributed by users or customers, such as reviews, comments, and forum posts.

UGC can enhance SEO by adding fresh and valuable content to your website.

User Engagement

User engagement encompasses various metrics, such as time on page, bounce rate, and click-through rate, that indicate how users interact with your website.

Search engines consider user engagement when evaluating the quality and relevance of your content.

User Experience (UX)

User experience plays a significant role in SEO. Search engines aim to deliver the best results to users, and websites with excellent UX are more likely to rank higher.

Key UX factors include site speed, mobile-friendliness, easy navigation, and engaging content.

User Intent

User intent refers to the underlying goal or motivation a user has when performing a search query.

Understanding user intent is essential for creating content that matches what users are looking for, which can lead to higher rankings and better user engagement.

Voice Search Optimization

With the rise of voice-activated devices and virtual assistants like Siri and Alexa, optimizing for voice search has become crucial.

Voice search optimization involves using natural language and providing concise, direct answers to common voice queries.

White Hat vs. Black Hat SEO

Understanding the ethical aspects of SEO is vital. SEO techniques are often categorized as either “white hat” or “black hat”:

  • White Hat SEO: These are ethical SEO practices that follow search engine guidelines. White hat SEO focuses on providing value to users and building a sustainable online presence.
  • Black Hat SEO: Black hat techniques involve manipulating search engine algorithms to achieve quick results. These practices can result in penalties or deindexing by search engines.

White Label SEO

White label SEO refers to a practice where an agency or SEO service provider offers its services to other businesses under their brand name.

It allows businesses to resell SEO services without the need to develop expertise in-house.

XML Sitemap

An XML sitemap is a structured file that lists all the pages on your website and their relationships.

It helps search engines index your site more efficiently and ensures that important pages are discovered and crawled.


Search Engine Optimization is a dynamic and multifaceted field that requires continuous learning and adaptation. Understanding these key SEO terms and concepts is a crucial first step in mastering the art of SEO.

As search engines evolve and algorithms change, staying informed and implementing best practices will be essential for achieving and maintaining high search rankings and driving organic traffic to your website.

Remember that SEO is a long-term endeavour, and patience, persistence, and ethical practices are the keys to success in this ever-changing digital landscape.

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